What’s the Difference Between Mixing and Mastering Music?


As an independent musician, you’ve likely heard the terms “mixing” and “mastering” thrown around quite a bit. They’re crucial steps in the music production process, but what do they actually mean? And more importantly, what’s the difference between the two?

In this article, we’ll demystify these terms and explain their roles in creating a polished, professional-sounding track.

Understanding Mixing

Mixing is the step in the music production process where all the individual tracks of a song — vocals, instruments, effects — are balanced and blended together.

The goal of mixing is to enhance the listening experience by ensuring all elements of the song work together harmoniously. This involves adjusting levels, panning instruments left or right for a stereo effect, adding effects like reverb or delay, and equalization to boost or cut specific frequencies.

For example, you might want the vocals to sit prominently in the mix, with the guitar and drums slightly lower in volume. Or perhaps you want a certain guitar riff to echo throughout the song. These are the kinds of decisions made during the mixing process.

The Role of Mastering

Mastering, on the other hand, is the final step in the music production process. It involves taking the mixed track and polishing it for distribution.

A mastering engineer makes subtle adjustments to the track’s overall equalization, compression, and limiting to ensure it sounds balanced and consistent across all playback systems — from a full-scale club PA system to smartphone speakers.

Mastering also ensures consistency across an album or EP. This means making sure all the tracks have a similar volume level and tonal balance, so there aren’t jarring differences when listeners play through the album.

The Key Differences

So, what’s the difference between mixing and mastering? In essence, mixing is about balancing the elements within a song, while mastering is about ensuring consistency and optimal playback across all systems and formats. Both are essential steps in producing a professional-sounding track.

In the next section, we’ll delve deeper into the specific techniques used in mixing and mastering, and how they contribute to the final product.

Techniques Used in Mixing and Mastering

The mixing process uses a variety of techniques to balance the elements of a song. Let’s explore some of them.

Below is a table that provides a clear comparison of the techniques used in the processes of mixing and mastering. It outlines which techniques are used in each process and provides a brief description of each technique.

This table serves as a quick reference guide to better understand the unique aspects and shared elements of both mixing and mastering.

TechniqueUsed in MixingUsed in MasteringDescription
Volume and PanningYesNoThe most basic tools at a mixer’s disposal. Volume adjustments ensure that no instrument or vocal part overshadows the others. Panning, which determines the stereo position of a track, can create a sense of width and space.
Equalization (EQ)YesYesUsed to balance the frequency content of individual tracks and the mix as a whole. It can brighten a dull vocal, remove low-frequency rumble, or make space for each instrument in the frequency spectrum.
CompressionYesYesUsed to control the dynamic range of a track — the difference between the loudest and quietest parts. It can make a vocal sound more consistent, or add punch to a drum track.
Reverb and DelayYesNoUsed to create a sense of space and depth. They can make a vocal sound like it was recorded in a large hall, or a guitar sound like it’s echoing off into the distance.
LimitingNoYesA limiter is a type of compressor that prevents the overall level from exceeding a certain threshold. This is used to increase the overall volume of the track without causing distortion.
Stereo EnhancementNoYesStereo enhancement tools can be used to adjust the stereo width of the mix. This can make the mix sound wider and more immersive.
DitheringNoYesDithering is a technique used when converting the final master to a lower bit depth for distribution. It adds a small amount of noise to prevent distortion or quantization error.
Please note that while these techniques are commonly associated with either mixing or mastering, there can be some overlap depending on the specific needs of the track and the approach of the engineer.

The Importance of Mixing and Mastering

Now that we understand what mixing and mastering involve, let’s discuss why they’re so important.

The Impact of Mixing

A well-mixed song is enjoyable to listen to. Each element has its own space in the stereo field and frequency spectrum, so you can hear everything clearly. The volume levels are balanced, so nothing is too loud or too quiet. Effects like reverb and delay add depth and interest. In short, good mixing makes a song sound ‘complete’.

The Role of Mastering

Mastering ensures your song will sound good no matter where it’s played. Whether your listeners are using high-end headphones, car speakers, or a smartphone, a well-mastered track will sound balanced and clear. Mastering also makes sure all the songs in an album or EP sound consistent when played back to back.

Can You Do It Yourself?

As an independent musician, you might be wondering if you can handle mixing and mastering yourself. The answer is: it depends.

With the right knowledge and tools, it’s possible to achieve decent results. However, mixing and mastering are skills that take time to learn. If you’re serious about your music sounding its best, it might be worth investing in a professional mixing and mastering engineer.

Mixing and mastering are crucial steps in the music production process. They’re the difference between a rough demo and a polished, professional-sounding track.

Once you’ve got a handle on what these processes entail and why they matter, you’ll be better equipped to make savvy decisions about your own tunes.


Is mixing more important than mastering?

No, mixing and mastering are equally important; mixing balances the elements of a song, while mastering ensures it sounds consistent across different playback systems.

Is it harder to mix or master?

Both mixing and mastering come with their own challenges and require different skill sets, so it’s not straightforward to say one is harder than the other; it often depends on the individual’s experience and understanding of each process.

Can you master a song without mixing?

Technically, you could master a song without mixing it, but the results would likely be subpar; mixing is a crucial step to balance and blend all the elements of a song before the final polish of mastering.

What is the difference between mixing studio and mastering studio?

A mixing studio is designed for the process of blending all the individual tracks in a song into a cohesive whole, and it typically features equipment like mixing consoles, monitors, and a variety of outboard gear. A mastering studio, on the other hand, is intended for the final processing and preparation of the mix for distribution, and it often includes specialized gear for tasks like equalization, compression, and limiting, as well as highly accurate monitoring systems.

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